26

2019

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06

The Party Building Column | Originally, the history of the Party says this!

中国共产党在20世纪20年代初成立是否偶然?中共党史上有“南陈北李,相约建党”之佳话。在李大钊和陈独秀的提议和酝酿下,1921年中共一大召开,中国共产党成立。


Was it accidental that the CPC was founded in the early 1920s?

In the history of the Communist Party of China, there is a beautiful saying that "Chen from the south and Li from the north agreed to establish the party". Under the proposal and deliberation of Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu, the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held in 1921, and the CPC was founded.

 

Then, is the establishment of the CPC purely accidental?

 

In another parallel time and space, if Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu did not have a brainwave and "agreed to build the party", would the CPC still be established in the early 1920s?

 

In fact, at about the same time or later when the Communist Party was established, a group of advanced elements who had no connection with the Shanghai Initiation Group of the Communist Party were also independently brewing to establish the Party.

 

In July 1920, a group of hardworking students studying in France gathered at Montani Public School. Cai Hesen advocated organizing the Communist Party and implementing proletarian dictatorship at the meeting. He also discussed with Li Weihan and others about preparing to establish a Communist Party. Later, due to being busy participating in and leading the struggle of the study movement, it was not possible to achieve it.

 

In the summer of 1921, members of Liqun Bookstore held a meeting in Huanggang, Hubei, expressing their support for organizing a new type of party - the Bolshevik style party, and proposing to call the group to be organized the 'Bolsheviks'. After learning the news of the founding of the CPC, Yun Daiying "immediately called for joining and ending the Liqun Bookstore".

 

In the winter of 1923, more than 20 people, including Wu Yuzhang and Yang Mengong, secretly organized the Chinese Youth Communist Party in Sichuan and issued the official newspaper "Chixin Commentary". Later, the Young Communist Party of China also automatically cancelled and asked its members to apply individually for membership in the CPC.

 

These facts show that the establishment of the CPC in the early 1920s was no accident!

 

Let's review the historical situation at that time again:

 

In the mid-19th century, modern China fell into a deep abyss of hardship and extreme humiliation under the oppression of foreign capitalist imperialism and domestic feudal forces. Although the Xinhai Revolution ended more than two thousand years of autocratic monarchy, it did not change the nature of China's semi colonial and semi feudal society.

 

At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the national industry had a preliminary development, and the Chinese working class team grew. During the May Fourth Movement, the working class took an independent stance on the historical stage, and the October Revolution in Russia brought Marxism to China.

 

Therefore, establishing a working class political party to lead the struggle of the Chinese people has become a common requirement of the most enlightened revolutionaries in China and a product of the development of objective situations.

 

 

Why is "Southern Chen and Northern Li" absent from the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China?

Dangdang "knocked on the blackboard and just said" South Chen and North Li, make an appointment to build the party ". Careful, you quickly checked the list of attendees of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China. What... What, there are no Li Dazhao and Chen Duxiu on the list of attendees of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China?

 

This is not scientific! In such a landmark event, how could it be that two protagonists, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, who were supposed to be present, were missing?

 

According to the recollection of a major "representative" at the time, the absences of Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao were all due to busy official duties and difficulty in getting out.

 

In December 1920, Chen Duxiu went to the Guangdong Provincial Government to oversee educational work. After arriving in Guangdong, he established the early organization of the Guangdong Communist Party, carried out the workers' movement, established trade unions, and promoted Marxism to farmers. In June 1921, Li Hanjun and other officials from Shanghai sent letters and telegrams urging Chen Duxiu and Guangdong representatives to attend the "First National Congress" in Shanghai. Chen Duxiu convened a meeting of Guangdong party members at Tan Zhitang's house and stated that he could not go to Shanghai. As a university president, he was seeking funds to build a school building and was afraid that the funds would not be available once he left, so he appointed Chen Gongbo to attend the first university.

 

As for Li Dazhao, he is not a professional revolutionary. His main occupation is as a professor at Peking University. The period from 1920 to 1924 was the busiest for Li Dazhao at Peking University and even in Beijing. In addition to serving as a professor, a member of the Professor Evaluation Council, and a librarian, he also served as the Secretary of the President's Office of Peking University from December 1922. At that time, in the absence of a "Vice President" as explicitly stipulated in the Education Law of the Republic of China, the Secretary was responsible for the administration of Peking University.

 

In fact, it may not be important why these two "big shots" did not attend the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Because this does not affect their historical position as the main founders in the history of the founding of the Communist Party of China. Chen Duxiu did not attend the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China and was still elected as the Secretary of the Central Bureau. Although Li Dazhao did not attend and was not elected to any leadership post, he was a spiritual leader in the eyes of early CPC people. Even Chen Duxiu, who is 10 years older than him, once humbled himself by saying, "Southern Chen has a false name, and Northern Li is indeed like the Big Dipper. The true portrayal of Li Dazhao's rightful position in the Chinese communist movement is that he shoulders the burden of morality and righteousness with iron and skillfully writes articles.

 

 

Why didn't the first Red Army be called the First Army

In April 1928, the Kuomintang mobilized heavy troops to besiege the rebellious forces in southern Hunan. Zhu De and Chen Yi had to lead their troops to withdraw from southern Hunan and go to Jinggangshan to meet with Mao Zedong's army. After the meeting, the two troops were combined to form the Fourth Army of the Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army, which was later renamed the Fourth Army of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army.

 

Wait for the lamp, wait for the lamp, "that's right. The famous Fourth Army of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, also known as the Red Fourth Army, was born in this way! This is the first official Red Army and also the first military level unit of the Red Army.

 

Wait a moment, there's still something that doesn't feel quite right... Previously, Mao Zedong's Autumn Harvest Uprising Army was the First Division of the First Army of the Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army. Later, Zhu De's troops were reorganized into the First Division of the Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army after the Southern Hunan Uprising, and Mao Zedong's Autumn Harvest Uprising Army was renamed the Second Division.

 

So why is it not called the "First Army" after the two armies meet, but rather the "Fourth Army"?

 

In fact, the answer lies in Jude's interview with American journalist Snow. In the interview, Zhu De mentioned, "So using the Fourth Army is to maintain the reputation of the Fourth Army as the 'Iron Army' during the Northern Expedition, which was our revolutionary fortress during the Great Revolution

 

Here we need to add a little knowledge. During the Northern Expedition, the Fourth Army was the most influential unit of the Communist Party of China, and many of its cadres at all levels were party members. Especially during the period when Ye Ting served as the commander, the Fourth Army established remarkable achievements in the Northern Expedition and was known as the "Iron Army". At that time, many people regarded the Fourth Army and the Communist Party as one.

 

In order to carry forward the glorious tradition of brave combat of the Fourth Army, the first new type of people's army established under the leadership of our party is named the "Fourth Army of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army".

 

Still not quite right, besides the "Fourth Army" and "Red Fourth Army", there is also the "New Fourth Army". Is there really another kind of fate with the "Fourth Army"?

 

Originally, during the War of Resistance Against Japan, according to the agreement reached through cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, the Red Army that remained in the Jiangnan War of Resistance was unified and reorganized into the "New Fourth Army", which was also to commemorate the previous "Red Fourth Army" and carried forward the fine tradition of the "Fourth Army".

 

 

Why is the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China held in Moscow?

Since the birth of the CPC in 1921, all the previous party congresses have been landmark events in the party's history.

 

However, what is rarely known is that the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 1928 was held in Wuyi Village, Narofiminsk District, Moscow Oblast, Soviet Union at that time. The meeting is held in a highly confidential state, and all participating representatives use pseudonyms.

 

This is the only party congress held abroad.

 

Why did the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China choose to travel thousands of miles to Moscow to convene?

 

The matter still needs to start from the comprehensive breakdown of the first cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party in 1927. After the failure of the Great Revolution, the Chiang Kai shek Group launched the "4.12" counter revolutionary coup. On July 15th, two months after the closure of the Fifth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Wuhan Nationalist Party Central Committee and the Nationalist Government led by Wang Jingwei officially broke with the Communist Party.

 

At that time, China was in a bloody situation. According to incomplete statistics, from March 1927 to the first half of 1928, more than 310000 Communist Party members and revolutionary masses were killed, including over 26000 Communist Party members, causing heavy losses.

 

This is a critical moment for the Communist Party since its birth, and it is difficult to find a safe place to hold the National Congress in China. When the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China learned that the Fourth Congress of the Red Workers' International and the Sixth Congress of the Communist International would be held in Moscow in the spring and summer of that year respectively, and the Fifth Congress of the Communist International would also be held in Moscow, considering that the CPC would send delegations to attend these conferences at that time, and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was also eager to receive timely guidance from the Communist International, So it was decided that the Sixth National Congress of the Party would be held in Moscow.

 

So, the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China traveled a thousand miles to Moscow to convene, In the article "Five Historical Details of the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China", Party historian Lin Baomin wrote: "Starting from late April 1928, 142 representatives who participated in the Congress risked their lives and crossed the vast Siberia, secretly heading to Moscow in batches. In order to avoid spy tracking, the representatives went to Harbin and divided their troops into two routes, one through the Suifen River and the other through Manchuria

 

Reviewing the history of the Sixth National Congress and the only national congress held abroad in the history of the Party, we will deeply understand how difficult it is for the CPC to go all the way to today

 

The Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China is a conference with significant historical significance. It conscientiously summarizes the experiences and lessons learned since the failure of the Great Revolution, provides basic and correct answers to a series of fundamentally controversial issues related to the Chinese revolution, and generally unifies the thinking of the entire party in the face of great ideological chaos within the party.

 

Of course, the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China also has limitations. Firstly, it still places urban work at the center, and secondly, it continues to view the national bourgeoisie as the enemy of the revolution. These limitations were limited by the conditions of the revolutionary development and the international communist movement at that time. The young CPC had not yet independently explored its own revolutionary path.

 

However, the CPC, in the process of continuous exploration, combines theory with practice and moves from naivety to maturity.

 

At this point, it is necessary to mention a key figure - Mao Zedong.

 

If someone looks up historical materials, they will find that Mao Zedong did not attend the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. What is he doing at this moment?

 

Mao Zedong was in Jinggangshan during the preparation and holding of the Sixth National Congress.

 

At the same time as the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held, Mao Zedong couldn't sleep all night in the octagonal tower of Jinggangshan, thousands of miles away. He guarded an oil lamp and pondered hard: where the Chinese revolution should go, how long it can go, especially - how to go. His answer is: rural areas surround cities.

 

It is difficult to give up copying the experience of others and find one's own path, but the more persistent it is, the clearer it becomes.

 

The CPC has gradually moved from naivety to maturity.

 

The beginning is simple, and the end is huge. This is an inscription given by Dong Biwu, who attended the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China, to the Memorial Hall of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China after the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Looking back at the history of the Party, we can see that it is not easy for the CPC to move from naivety to maturity. This is a historical process, as well as a process of combining theory with practice. The specific laws of the Chinese revolution can only be understood and gradually solved through repeated exploration and testing in the specific practice of the Chinese revolution.