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2021

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03

Learning and Education of Party History

The founding of the CPC in 1921 was no accident. On the occasion of the 98th anniversary of the founding of the CPC, and on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China under the leadership of the CPC, we must look back on the founding of the CPC and put our vision into a longer history. We must see the trend of history and the inevitability of history through changes and magnificence.


The founding of the CPC in 1921 was no accident. On the occasion of the 98th anniversary of the founding of the CPC, and on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China under the leadership of the CPC, we must look back on the founding of the CPC and put our vision into a longer history. We must see the trend of history and the inevitability of history through changes and magnificence.

(1)

In 1840, a year with deep memories of national humiliation, Britain, known as the number one capitalist power in the West, launched an aggressive war against China, known as the Opium War. This war changed China's status and social nature, transforming it from an independent feudal country to a semi colonial and semi feudal country, thus becoming a turning point in history and the beginning of modern Chinese history. The nature of Chinese society determines the task of revolution. Starting from this year, the Chinese people engaged in a series of indomitable struggles against foreign capitalist imperialism and their own feudal rule. This is the historical background since the establishment of the CPC in modern times.

In China, the foundation of the feudal exploitation system - feudal land ownership and the exploitation of farmers by landlords - still occupy the main position. Landowners who account for less than 10% of the rural population and occupy 60% to 70% of the land; However, the poor and employed farmers, who account for 70% of the rural population, have little or no land.

In fact, while foreign capital imperialist aggression and exploitation, as well as feudal exploitation and oppression, the resistance and revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people have never stopped. The Three Yuan Li Rebellion, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Movement, the Boxer Rebellion, and other movements are surging. At the same time, a group of advanced Chinese people were the first to awaken, with Lin Zexu, Gong Zizhen, Wei Yuan, and others becoming the first generation pioneers to open their eyes to the world, proposing ideas such as "learning from barbarians and using their skills to control them"; A group of advocates for reform and reform also emerged, such as Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, and Tan Sitong, who launched the Reform and Reform Movement.

(2)

However, whether it is a stormy uprising or a reform that sees death as a return, it ultimately ends in failure.

What should I do if this road is blocked? Only find another way.

In 1894, Sun Yat sen established the Revolutionary Group Xingzhong Association in Honolulu, United States, and for the first time loudly proposed the slogan of "Revitalizing China". In 1905, he established the Chinese Chinese Revolutionary League in Japan, which is the predecessor of the Chinese Kuomintang and has the nature of a bourgeois revolutionary party. His 16 character revolutionary program of "expelling the Tartars, restoring China, establishing the Republic of China, and equalizing land rights" first proposed the revolutionary goal of replacing the decadent autocratic feudal dynasty with a bourgeois democratic republic, and more completely put forward the political program aimed at establishing a bourgeois republic.

The Xinhai Revolution, led by Sun Yat sen, a great patriot, great democrat, and the great pioneer of the Chinese democratic revolution, has great significance in modern Chinese history: it overthrew the rule of the Qing Dynasty, which surrendered to imperialism, ended the monarchical dictatorship that lasted for more than 2000 years in China, and established a republican system; It has promoted the development of Chinese national capitalism and social transformation; It has promoted the great ideological liberation of the Chinese people.

Since then, the CPC has always referred to Sun Yat sen as "Mr.".

(3)

This is a great revolution, a successful revolution, and a failed revolution, but ultimately, it still failed.

The Party history textbook summarizes the reasons for the failure of the Xinhai Revolution. For example, there is a lack of clear and complete anti imperialist and anti feudal programs; Not widely mobilizing the people; There is no advanced, strong and powerful political party that can lead the revolution, and so on.

What I have to say here is that after the Revolution of 1911, China's national capitalism has made new development. In connection with this, the working class, the most important class foundation created by the CPC, has further expanded. By the eve of the May Fourth Movement in 1919, the number of industrial workers had reached around 2 million, increasingly becoming an important emerging social force. The proletariat in China, in addition to industrial workers, also includes various types of non industrial workers who are in the same or similar position as industrial workers and live by selling labor, with a total of up to 40 million people. They, like the proletariat of other countries, do not possess any means of production and are linked to advanced production methods, making them the most revolutionary and advanced class.

The failure of the Xinhai Revolution and the dark rule of the Beiyang warlords have once again raised questions about which path China will take and where its future lies.

However, politically speaking, the fundamental purpose of the New Culture Movement is still to clear ideological barriers for the development of Chinese capitalism. And history has actually proven that the capitalist path is not the way out for China. Among the advanced elements at that time, some had already questioned it. Li Dazhao once said in May 1916, "Although representative politics are still being tested, it is difficult to determine whether it is good or not, and its existence is uncertain. Mao Zedong also said in August 1917, "Although Eastern thought is not relevant to real life, Western thought may not be all, and many parts should also be reformed simultaneously with Eastern thought.

The success of the October Revolution in Russia had a huge impact on China and also brought great encouragement to the Chinese people and advanced Chinese elements.

The October Revolution not only showed the Chinese people how socialism has become a living reality, but more importantly, it also brought a guiding light to China - Marxism. The phrase we are familiar with to this day is: the October Revolution brought us Marxism Leninism with a single shot. From then on, the name of Marx, a Westerner of the 19th century, became increasingly popular among advanced Chinese elements. The brilliance of his ideas allowed people to see more and more clearly the direction and path of the Chinese revolution.

Three years later, Li Dazhao became one of the main founders of the CPC.

(4)

The emergence of a great political party is never easy.

The direct trigger of the May Fourth Movement was China's diplomatic failure at the Paris Peace Conference. In the May Fourth Movement, an important fact occurred: the Chinese working class began to take an independent stance on the political stage. As the center of the movement shifted from Beijing to Shanghai, the main body of the movement gradually shifted from students to workers. It broke through the narrow scope of intellectuals and became a nationwide mass movement with the participation of the working class, petty bourgeoisie, and bourgeoisie; It carries a posture that was never seen in the Xinhai Revolution, namely a complete and uncompromising opposition to imperialism and feudalism, inspiring the consciousness of the masses and promoting the unity of revolutionary forces.

Li Dazhao is still at the forefront. In September and November 1919, he consecutively published an article titled "My Marxist View" in "New Youth", affirming Marxism as the "theory of world transformation of the original" and providing a comprehensive and systematic introduction to Marxism.

Of course, the dissemination of early Marxism was not smooth sailing either. Some bourgeois intellectuals, represented by Hu Shi, are unwilling to see the New Culture Movement develop into a movement that widely spreads Marxism, deny the applicability of Marxism to China, and stubbornly adhere to the position of bourgeois reformism. In July 1919, he published an article titled "Research more problems, talk less about 'ism'!", openly mocking "it is extremely easy to talk about good sounding 'ism'," it is something that both cats and dogs can do, and it is something that both parrots and gramophones can do. Hu Shi admitted that the purpose of publishing this article was to prevent people from being "led by the nose" by Marx and Lenin. He also believes that the Marxist claim that the Chinese problem needs to be "fundamentally solved" is a "self deceiving dream talk".

In fact, here, Li Dazhao not only strongly refuted Hu Shi, but also preliminarily expounded the idea that the general principles of Marxism must be combined and developed in the process of combining with China's reality.

From a historical perspective, debate is not a bad thing. In the debate, it expanded the influence of socialist ideology in China and promoted progressive youth to understand, understand, and accept Marxism.

Before and after the May 4th Movement, the rise of the Chinese working class, the spread of Marxism, and the formation of a team of believers in Marxism made ideological and cadre preparations for the establishment of the CPC. It is in this sense that we say the May Fourth Movement marks the great beginning of China's new democratic revolution.

(5)

Establishing a new revolutionary political party to lead the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people is an inevitable result of the combination of Marxism and the Chinese workers' movement, and is an inevitable requirement for the development of modern Chinese society. Today, we regard July 1921 as the month when the CPC was officially founded. In fact, the party building activities and work of the Communist Party had begun more than a year ago.

The earliest organization of the CPC was established in Shanghai in August 1920. The process was as follows: on the basis of launching the establishment of the Marxist Research Association in May of the same year, Chen Duxiu held a meeting with Li Hanjun and others in June to discuss, decided to establish a party organization, and drafted a party program with a total of 10 articles. Regarding the name of the party organization, should we use "Socialist Party" or "Communist Party"? Chen Duxiu sought the opinions of Li Dazhao, who advocated using the "Communist Party". In August, the first organization of the Communist Party was established in the editorial department of "New Youth" at No. 2 Laoyuyangli in the Shanghai concession, and Chen Duxiu was elected as the secretary. In November, the Declaration of the CPC was drafted, pointing out that "the purpose of communism is to create a new society in accordance with the ideals of communists".

After the establishment of early Communist Party organizations in Shanghai and Beijing, Dong Biwu and others were in Wuhan, Mao Zedong and others were in Changsha, Wang Jingmei and others were in Jinan. In addition, early Communist Party organizations were also established among Chinese traveling to Japan and France.

So, what did the early party organizations do after their establishment? In summary, there are mainly the following aspects:

The second is to criticize various anti Marxist ideologies. With the increasing influence of Marxist ideology, some ideological factions that advocate socialism as a non socialist ideology have been promoting their own views and confusing the public, mainly including Celtic socialism, that is, bourgeois reformism under the banner of socialism; At that time, anarchism once had an advantage among the various popular socialist ideologies; In addition, revisionism represented by the Second International also has a certain market. In response to these erroneous ideological trends, members of the early Communist Party organizations engaged in a debate and resolute struggle, and expanded the ideological front of Marxism in the debate and struggle.

The fourth is to establish a socialist youth league organization. In order to unite and educate revolutionary youth, in August 1920, the Shanghai Communist Party organized and led the establishment of the Socialist Youth League, and issued a Youth League charter to communists across the country, requesting the establishment of a Youth League organization. In November, the Beijing Socialist Youth League was established. Subsequently, youth league organizations were established in cities such as Wuhan, Changsha, Tianjin, and Guangzhou.

(6)

Xi Jinping pointed out that "in order to revitalize a country or a nation, it is necessary to advance in the logic of historical progress and develop in the trend of the times." The establishment and birth of a political party is not the result of the logic of historical progress, nor is it an inevitable trend of the times. The establishment and activities of the early organization of the CPC promoted the combination of Marxism and the workers' movement, promoted the workers to gradually accept Marxism, gradually improved their positive consciousness, and also emerged a group of advanced elements with communist ideology who can formally establish and lead a political party. All these fully demonstrate that the conditions for the formal establishment of the CPC have been met.

In March, Li Dazhao wrote an article publicly calling for the creation of a working class political party: "There is currently no group in China that can truly demonstrate the power of the people. If friends of the C faction (communist faction) can establish a strong and precise organization and pay attention to promoting the training of their constituent groups, then China's complete reform may have some support

That night, the first National Congress of the CPC was officially opened. At 76 Xingye Road in Shanghai, it was a major venue at that time, at 106 Wangzhi Road in the French Concession of Shanghai. Thirteen representatives from party organizations from various regions attended the meeting. The representative of the Communist International, Ma Lin, first delivered a speech, congratulating the establishment of the CPC. The next day, representatives from various regions reported on the organization of the Party and Youth League in their respective regions. On the 25th and 26th, the meeting was adjourned for two days to draft the party outline and work plan for discussion at the meeting. On the 27th, 28th, and 29th, three consecutive meetings were held to discuss the Party's program and resolutions in detail. On the evening of the 30th, the meeting was terminated due to the sudden intrusion of a mysterious man, and representatives were transferred in batches to continue on a cruise ship in Nanhu, Jiaxing, Zhejiang. Jiaxing South Lake has thus become a holy place for the CPC to set sail. The "Red Boat Spirit" has also become the most representative spiritual symbol of the Communist Party.

 

 

 

 

The official founding conference of the CPC was held secretly under the white terror of reactionary rule. Apart from being harassed by spies once, it did not attract much attention in the society, as if nothing had happened. In fact, this was a groundbreaking thunder. After the thunder, the flames of revolution had already ignited, and the dark night of China began to gradually reveal the dawn. 28 years later, a bright new China was born.