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Learning and Education of Party History | 1923: Revolutionary Journey Joining Hands - The Historical Choice of the First Cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party

1923 seems to be a quiet year in the history of the CPC. But when we enter history, we will still find that this is only the surface of history, and there are still many noteworthy "waves" and "waves" in deep history. These waves have just affected the historical trend after the CPC. For example, the Beijing Han Railway Workers' Strike and Mao Zedong's first entry into the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China are important components of the history of the Communist Party of China. Of course, the most significant event of 1923 was the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party.


1923 seems to be a quiet year in the history of the CPC. But when we enter history, we will still find that this is only the surface of history, and there are still many noteworthy "waves" and "waves" in deep history. These waves have just affected the historical trend after the CPC. For example, the Beijing Han Railway Workers' Strike and Mao Zedong's first entry into the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China are important components of the history of the Communist Party of China. Of course, the most significant event of 1923 was the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party.

(1)

It is a good omen of a new beginning and a renewal of everything. On January 1, 1923, Sun Yat sen issued the "Declaration of the Chinese Nationalist Party", marking a new stage in the restructuring of the Kuomintang and the beginning of a new era in the Chinese revolution. In the Manifesto of the Kuomintang of China, Sun Yat sen pointed out: "Although the previous revolution originated from the people, its success was replaced by a single husband, and it was no longer associated with the people. Today's revolution stands in the position of the people and serves as a guide, caring for the interests of the people, expressing the emotions of the people... Therefore, the revolutionary cause is developed by the people, and also formed by the people." Regarding the attention to "the interests of the people" and "the emotions of the people", It is a fundamental transformation of Sun Yat sen's revolutionary direction, which is the foundation of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. To achieve this understanding, there were both painful lessons learned from Sun Yat sen's previous revolutionary failures and the results of his contact with the Communist International and members of the Communist Party.

In order to promote cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, both the Communist International and the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party were very enthusiastic and active. On January 7th, Soviet representatives flew to Shanghai and held multiple meetings with Sun Yat sen, exploring and discussing issues such as restructuring the Kuomintang, cooperation between the two parties, establishing the military, and opposing imperialism. In the end, both sides reached consensus on many issues. On January 26th, the Sun Wen Yue Fei Declaration was issued, which stated: "The most important and urgent issue for China is the success of the reunification of the Republic of China and the acquisition of complete national independence. Regarding this great cause, Yue Fei Jun assured Dr. Sun that China should receive the most sincere sympathy from the Russian people and can rely on Russian assistance, The Communist International officially made a resolution on the cooperation between the Communist Party of China and the Kuomintang - the Resolution on the Relationship between the CPC and the Kuomintang. The resolution analyzed the nature of the Kuomintang and pointed out that "the only major national revolutionary group in China is the Kuomintang, which relies not only on the liberal bourgeoisie, democratic faction, and petty bourgeoisie, but also on intellectuals and workers"; As for the form of cooperation, the resolution pointed out that "under the current conditions, it is appropriate for members of the CPC to stay in the Kuomintang", that is, to take the form of intra party cooperation; The resolution on the principle and purpose of joining the Kuomintang pointed out: "The unique political outlook of the CPC cannot be eliminated at the cost. The Party must maintain its original organization and strictly centralized leadership", "The CPC should act under its own banner and not rely on any other political group, but at the same time avoid conflicts with the national revolutionary movement" "As long as the Kuomintang objectively implements correct policies, the CPC should support it in all movements on the national revolutionary front. However, the CPC must not merge with it, nor roll up its original flag in these movements"; The resolution states the purpose of joining the Kuomintang: "Organize and educate the workers and masses, establish trade unions, in order to prepare the foundation for a strong mass oriented Communist Party. It should be acknowledged that the content of the resolution itself is very clear and correct, that is, it is necessary to maintain the independence of the Communist Party of China. The Communist Party's support for the Kuomintang is actually conditional, that is, "the Kuomintang objectively implements correct policies. On the contrary, the Communist Party may not support the Kuomintang.

(2)

If it were said that due to Chen Jiongming's rebellion, Sun Yat sen realized the need to unite other forces and thus accepted the idea of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. So, it can also be said that due to the serious setbacks of the Beijing Han Railway Workers' Strike, the weak Communist Party realized the need to unite with other revolutionary or pro revolutionary forces, and thus accepted the suggestion of the Communist International to cooperate with the Kuomintang. This is because reality is the most persuasive.

After the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Communist Party of China established the Secretariat of the Chinese Labor Union to lead the workers' movement. From January 1922 to February 1923, the first climax of the Chinese workers' movement was triggered. Over a period of 13 months, there have been over 100 strikes of all sizes across the country, with over 300000 participants. Among them, the Jinghan Railway Workers' Strike staged the most magnificent scene. The Jinghan Railway runs through the three provinces of Zhili, Henan, and Hubei, and is the transportation lifeline connecting North and Central China, with important economic, political, and military significance. The operating income of the Jinghan Railway is one of the main sources of military salaries for warlord Wu Peifu.

The preparatory meeting for the Beijing Han Railway Federation of Trade Unions under the leadership of the Party decided to hold its inaugural meeting in Zhengzhou on February 1, 1923. Nearly 300 representatives from the conference, various railway trade unions, Hanyeping Federation of Trade Unions, over 30 trade unions in Wuhan, and student representatives from Beijing and Wuhan gathered in Zhengzhou. The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China attaches great importance to this conference and has sent people to attend it. On the morning of February 1st, warlord Wu Peifu dispatched a large number of armed military and police officers to impose martial law throughout the city of Zhengzhou, ordering a ban on the convening of the establishment conference of the Beijing Han Railway Federation of Trade Unions. However, the worker representatives attending the meeting broke through the heavy encirclement of the military and police, shouting slogans such as "Long live the Beijing Han Railway Federation of Trade Unions" and "Long live the victory of the working class", and held a conference at the Zhengzhou Puyuan Theater to announce the establishment of the Beijing Han Railway Federation of Trade Unions. On the same day, heavily armed military and police officers tightly surrounded the venue, forcibly disbanded the meeting, destroyed the Federation of Trade Unions and Zhengzhou Branch Clubhouse, and drove away representatives. That night, the Executive Committee of the Beijing Han Railway Federation of Trade Unions held a secret meeting and decided to transfer the temporary general office of the Federation of Trade Unions to the Hankou River Bank, and decided to hold a general strike on the entire railway starting from February 4th. On the 4th, about 20000 workers on the entire Jinghan Railway went on strike as scheduled, and the 1200 kilometer long Jinghan Railway line immediately fell into paralysis. The Jinghan Railway was a transportation hub connecting North China and Central China, and was also Wu Peifu's main economic line. The collapse of the railway caused panic among Wu Peifu and his imperialists. On February 7th, with the support of imperialism, Wu Peifu mobilized more than 20000 military and police officers to suppress the strike along the Beijing Han Railway, creating a shocking "27 Massacre" both domestically and internationally. On February 8, 1923, the 4th edition of the "Declaration" published a special telegram titled "The Benevolent Workers on the Jinghan Road": On the 6th, the Eastern News Agency reported in Hankou that the alliance of the Jinghan Railway's strike workers organized a death squad, which clashed with the armed forces due to the destruction of dozens of tracks near the Liujia Temple.

The general strike movement fully reflects the exemplary role of Communist Party members and their heroic dedication. Lin Xiangqian, Chairman of the Jiang'an Branch of the Beijing Han Railway Federation of Trade Unions and a Communist Party member, was killed. Lin Xiangqian was born in October 1892 into a peasant family in Minhou County, Fujian Province. In 1906, he became an apprentice at Mawei Shipyard. In 1912, Lin Xiangqian passed the technical examination and came to Hankou Jiang'an Railway Factory to work as a fitter. In the summer of 1922, Lin Xiangqian joined the CPC and was elected the chairman of the Jiang'an Labor Division Committee of Beijing Wuhan Railway. On the morning of February 4, 1923, at 9 o'clock, Lin Xiangqian received instructions from the Federation of Trade Unions regarding a strike and issued a strike order. On the afternoon of February 6th, the Consuls General of the United States and Britain stationed in Hankou summoned Chinese and foreign comprador capitalists to plot and pressure the Beiyang warlord government. Wu Peifu colluded with imperialism and decided to brutally suppress the striking Beijing Han railway workers. Lin Xiangqian realized that a cruel struggle was about to come. At noon on February 7th, he hid the seal of the division of labor union in his charcoal fire pot at home and hurried back to the union. At 5:20 pm, the reactionary military and police from two battalions surrounded the Jiang'an Labor Union Club, firing wildly at unarmed workers. More than 30 workers sacrificed and more than 200 were injured. Lin Xiangqian was arrested along with more than ten union leaders and worker representatives. That night, it snowed heavily, and the enemy tied Lin Xiangqian to the wooden stakes on the platform of the Jiang'an Station. The reactionary warlords used death threats to force Lin Xiangqian to order a resumption of work, but Lin Xiangqian flatly refused. The enemy sternly ordered the executioner to raise his knife and strike at Lin Xiangqian's left shoulder. "Do you want to go to work?" Lin Xiangqian said decisively, "To go to work, you need an order from the Federation of Trade Unions. My head can be broken, blood can flow, and work cannot be resumed!" The butcher knife struck at Lin Xiangqian's right shoulder, and he was bleeding profusely and passed out. When he woke up, the enemy once again fiercely asked him, "How is it now?" Lin Xiangqian angrily rebuked the enemy with all his strength. "What else can I say now? Pity a good China, and it will be in the hands of your warlords!" Under the butcher's knife of the reactionary forces, Lin Xiangqian sacrificed heroically at the age of 31.

In this major strike, 52 workers sacrificed and more than 300 were injured. The blood of revolutionaries stained the tracks of the Beijing Han Railway red.

(3)

After the failure of the Beijing Han Railway Strike, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China relocated from Beijing to Shanghai. Due to the consideration of the convening of the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the proposal made by the Communist International as early as 1922 to have the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China relocate its headquarters to Guangzhou, and considering that Guangzhou is more convenient for work, in May, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China relocated to Guangzhou. From a historical perspective, the relocation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to Guangzhou clearly had specific considerations for facilitating the implementation of the policy of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held to specifically implement the policy of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. Guangzhou is the headquarters of Sun Yat sen and the Kuomintang, and in terms of specific communication work, it will definitely be more convenient for both the Kuomintang and the Communist Party.

While in contact with the Comintern, the war in Guangzhou has also been ongoing, and many generals have petitioned Sun Yat sen to return to Guangzhou to preside over the political situation. On February 21st, Sun Yat sen returned to Guangzhou through Hong Kong and established the Grand Marshal's Mansion at the Eastern Suburb Agricultural Testing Ground. Sun Yat sen was reinstated under the name of Grand Marshal. It was not until mid June, under the leadership of Sun Yat sen, that Chen Jiongming's troops and other rebels were repelled, and the situation in Guangzhou stabilized.

(4)

The Third National Congress of the CPC was held from June 12 to 20, 1923, at No. 31, Dongshan orphanage (now No. 3, orphanage road), Guangzhou. Nearly 40 representatives from all over the country and Moscow, including Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao, Mao Zedong, Cai Hesen, Chen Tanqiu, and Yun Daiying, attended the conference, representing 420 party members from across the country. Communist International representative Marin attended the meeting. The central topic of this conference is to discuss the issue of all Communist Party members joining the Kuomintang and establishing a united front for cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party.

Chen Duxiu presided over the conference and delivered a work report on behalf of the Second Central Executive Committee. The meeting conveyed the instructions of the Communist International on cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, analyzed the necessity of establishing a revolutionary united front, and the possibility of transforming the Kuomintang led by Sun Yat sen into a revolutionary alliance between the workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie, and national bourgeoisie. The Congress accepted the Resolution on the Relationship between the CPC and the Kuomintang adopted by the Executive Committee of the Communist International on January 12, 1923, and finally passed the Resolution on the National Movement and the Kuomintang, which decided to achieve Kuomintang Communist cooperation in the form of Communists joining the Kuomintang as individuals, while maintaining the independence of the Communist Party in politics, ideology and organization.

At the end of the conference, the Declaration of the Third National Congress of the CPC and other documents were adopted. And a new central leadership structure was elected, with 9 members elected as members of the Central Executive Committee, including Chen Duxiu, Cai Hesen, Li Dazhao, Tan Pingshan, Wang Hebo, Mao Zedong, Zhu Shaolian, Xiang Ying, and Luo Zhanglong; Deng Pei, Zhang Lianguang, Xu Meikun, Li Hanjun, and Deng Zhongxia are alternate members. The standing body of the Central Executive Committee is the Central Bureau, composed of five members: Chen Duxiu, Cai Hesen, Mao Zedong, Luo Zhanglong, and Tan Pingshan, responsible for the daily work of the Central Committee.

There was a precedent for Communist Party members to join the Kuomintang as individuals before the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China. In August 1922, Sun Yat sen was forced to come to Shanghai because of Chen Jiongming's rebellion. At the moment of "distress", the CPC immediately launched the united front work and appointed Li Dazhao to contact Sun Yat sen. After Li Dazhao met Sun Yat sen, they talked a lot about saving the country and the people, as well as the issue of revitalizing the Kuomintang to revitalize China. Sun Yat sen felt very excited and didn't feel tired after talking for several hours. During this period, Sun Yat sen hoped that Li Dazhao could join the Kuomintang. After Li Dazhao declared himself a party member of the Third International, Sun Yat sen openly said, "It doesn't matter. You can join the party and help me while being a party member of the Third International. Li Dazhao, an alternate member of the Central Executive Committee of the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, became the earliest Communist Party member to join the Kuomintang.

For the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, there are not only obstacles and doubts within the Communist Party, but also within the Kuomintang. Because on the Chinese political stage at that time, the Kuomintang was not only an old party, but also a big party. It had hundreds of thousands of members, and had Guangzhou as its base camp. The CPC was just a small group with about 200 people who had been established for more than a year. Therefore, from the surface, it was difficult for the Communist Party to sit on the same footing with the Kuomintang in any respect.

Sun Yat sen's wife Song Qingling asked, "Why do we need the Communist Party to join the Kuomintang

Sun Yat sen replied, "The Kuomintang is dying in its decline, and to revive it, new blood is needed

There is no doubt that the CPC can save the "new blood" of the Kuomintang, and later facts have also proved this judgment. But realize that this is not something that anyone can achieve. This not only requires sharp political wisdom and excellent vision, but also a revolutionary spirit and style of work that is brave and responsible. In this regard, Mr. Sun Yat sen deserves it!

After the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Second National Congress of the Chinese Socialist Youth League was held in Nanjing from August 20th to 25th, 1923. The agenda of the conference also includes the issue of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and it is decided that members of the Socialist Youth League, like Communist Party members, should join the Kuomintang in their personal capacity. From November 24 to 25, the First Plenary Session of the Third Central Committee of the CPC was held in Shanghai. The Plenary Session further resolved the issue of implementing the resolutions of the Third National Congress of the CPC in accordance with the spirit of the letter of instruction from the Executive Committee of the Communist International to the Third National Congress of the Party and the actual situation of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party at that time. The meeting decided to further promote the reorganization of the Kuomintang and expand the Kuomintang organization throughout the country. Where there is a Kuomintang organization, members of the CPC and members of the Socialist Youth League will "join together"; Where the Kuomintang is unorganized, our party is established for it. The meeting also decided that the CPC should implement the Communist Party's program and policies in the Kuomintang through a secret group with the nature of a party group, and strive to "stand at the central position of the Kuomintang". On November 25, with the help of the CPC, the Kuomintang branch in Europe was officially established. Zhou Enlai delivered a speech at the meeting, criticizing the corruption phenomenon within the Kuomintang to the point. At the meeting, Zhou Enlai was elected as the General Affairs Director of the Executive Department of the Kuomintang's European Branch, and Li Fuchun was elected as the Propaganda Director. After the meeting, Zhou Enlai was appointed as the preparatory officer for the Kuomintang's Paris Communications Office, and Nie Rongzhen, Li Fuchun, and others also participated in the establishment of the Kuomintang's Paris Communications Office. On December 22nd, the Central Committee of the Chinese Socialist Youth League issued Notice No. 24, stating that the restructuring of the Kuomintang meets the requirements of national revolutionaries and the hopes of the Socialist Youth League. Therefore, the Socialist Youth League should strive to cooperate with the Kuomintang and assist in its restructuring. On the 25th, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the 13th Central Notice, requesting all Communist Party members to actively assist in the restructuring of the Kuomintang and deploy specific steps to participate in the Kuomintang to local party organizations, in order to promote the convening of the first National Congress of the Kuomintang.

It was out of sincerity in helping the Kuomintang that in December 1923, Li Dazhao, with dual political status, arrived in Guangzhou to help Sun Yat sen reorganize the Kuomintang and prepare for the convening of the first National Congress of the Kuomintang. The Central Bureau of the CPC and the Central Bureau of the Chinese Socialist Youth League jointly issued their opinions on the First National Congress of the Kuomintang. Before and after this, some Communist Party members published articles in newspapers such as "Guide" and "Chinese Youth" on how to give more revolutionary content to the Three Principles of the People, and how to establish the three major policies of uniting Russia, the Communist Party, and supporting farmers and workers. They earnestly put forward many suggestions and opinions to the Kuomintang.

(5)

1923 was a major year for the Communist Party of China; For Mao Zedong personally, it was still a happy year. General readers may believe that Mao Zedong only entered the core level of the Party Central Committee at the Zunyi Conference. In fact, Mao Zedong became a member of the leadership collective of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China as early as 1923.

In April 1923, Mao Zedong arranged for the work of the Communist Party of China in the Hunan district. In the terrifying situation where notices of warlord Zhao Hengti offering rewards to arrest Mao Zedong were posted everywhere on the streets of Changsha, he bid farewell to Yang Kaihui and his son Mao Anying, who had just turned half a year old. He left Qingshuitang and secretly went to Shanghai. Then, he arrived in Guangzhou with Communist International representative Ma Lin and others, along with Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao, Tan Pingshan, Cai Hesen, Chen Tanqiu, Luo Zhanglong, and others, Prepare for the convening of the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

At the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Mao Zedong formed the Central Bureau with five members including Chen Duxiu, Cai Hesen, Luo Zhanglong, and Tan Pingshan. Chen Duxiu was the Chairman of the Central Bureau, and Mao Zedong was the Secretary of the Central Bureau, assisting the Chairman in handling the daily work of the Central Bureau. This is the first time that Mao Zedong entered the leadership core of the CPC. At this time, he was 30 years old, just in his thirties. The reason why Mao Zedong stood out is mainly due to his outstanding achievements in leading the Hunan Party. At the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China, there were over 200 party members and 433 members in Anyuan, accounting for one-third of the total number of party members in the country. The Anyuan Road and Mining Workers' Movement has been carried out successfully and has been highly recognized by the Party Central Committee and Chen Duxiu, At the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Chen Duxiu summarized the work of the central and various regions since the Second National Congress and said, "As for the region, we can say that the comrades in Shanghai have done too little work for the Party. The comrades in Beijing have caused many difficulties due to their lack of understanding of the Party organization. The comrades in Hubei have not prevented conflicts in a timely manner, so the strength of the workers has not increased. Only the comrades in Hunan can say that their work is very good

According to the Organic Law of the Central Executive Committee of the CPC passed at the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China, "the secretary is responsible for the internal and external documents, correspondence and meeting records of the party, and manages the documents of the party. All correspondence of the party must be signed by the chairman of the committee and the secretary." It can be said that Mao Zedong, the secretary, has considerable power. After the end of the Third National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Chen Duxiu and Mao Zedong jointly signed and issued a series of documents. Moreover, Mao Zedong often independently issued documents on behalf of the central government to guide local work.

On September 16, 1923, Mao Zedong returned to Hunan and personally guided the establishment and development of the Hunan Nationalist Party organization. The first step is to organize the Changsha branch, and the second step is to establish sub branches in Changde, Hengyang, and other places, and on this basis, establish the Hunan General Branch. Under the guidance of Mao Zedong, the Changsha branch of the Kuomintang was established in early October, followed by the establishment of branches in Ningxiang, Anyuan, and other regions, as well as the Hunan General Branch, making Hunan one of the most developed provinces for Kuomintang organization during the Great Revolution. This shows Mao Zedong's outstanding leadership talent.