22

2021

-

03

Learning and Education of Party History

When the CPC was founded, it was only a small political party on the political stage. The first National Congress of the Communist Party of China did not attract much attention in society, as if nothing had happened. But in just one year, this new proletarian revolutionary party has demonstrated its progressiveness nature in theory and practice.


In 1922, the young CPC thrived.

When the CPC was founded, it was only a small political party on the political stage. The first National Congress of the Communist Party of China did not attract much attention in society, as if nothing had happened. But in just one year, this new proletarian revolutionary party has demonstrated its progressiveness nature in theory and practice.

The CPC combines the basic principles of Marxism with the specific problems of the Chinese revolution. On the basis of a scientific analysis of the international and domestic situations, it clarifies the object and motive force of the revolution, formulates the program of democratic revolution, and holds the banner of anti imperialism and anti feudalism in front of the entire Chinese people for the first time.

The CPC, as the vanguard of the Chinese working class and the representative of the fundamental interests of the Chinese people, organized and set off the climax of the labor movement, launched and led the peasant movement, the youth movement and the women's movement, and soon created a new situation in the Chinese revolution.

The vigorous CPC has brought new hope to the Chinese revolution.

one

Those who are good at playing chess plan for potential, those who are not good at playing chess plan for children, and those who are good at planning for potential will surely achieve great things.

After the Opium War, China gradually became a semi colonial and semi feudal society, with the invasion of foreign powers advancing step by step, and feudal rule becoming increasingly corrupt. Forty thousand people shed tears together, where is the divine land in the world. In order to save the nation and change the fate of the Chinese nation, the Chinese people and countless people with lofty ideals have engaged in arduous exploration and tenacious struggle. But for a long time, people's understanding of the overall trend of social development was not clear, and they did not understand the nature, target, and driving force of the Chinese revolution, resulting in very little effectiveness in the struggle.

After the founding of the CPC, it began to explore the practical problems of Chinese society and the Chinese revolution with the advanced ideological weapon of Marxism. In January 1922, the Pioneer issued a statement clearly stating that "efforts must be made to study the objective and practical situation of China and find the most suitable and practical solution to the Chinese problem" as the "first priority".

In the practice of actively participating in the revolutionary struggle, the CPC people formed a basic understanding of the characteristics of the international and domestic situation at that time.

Internationally, imperialist powers have intensified their aggression against China in an attempt to further exploit it. The Washington Conference held from the end of 1921 to the beginning of 1922 affirmed the principles of "equal opportunities for all countries in China" and "open doors to China" proposed by the United States. Its essence is to allow imperialist powers to jointly rule and control China on the basis of confirming the advantage of the United States, and to limit Japan's attempts to monopolize China. After this meeting, the major powers vigorously expanded their sphere of influence in China and strengthened their plundering and control of China economically and politically.

In China, the conflicts between various warlords controlled by major powers have intensified, leading to even more intense competition. In order to compete for control of the Beijing government, the Zhiwan War and the First Zhifeng War broke out one after another, leaving China in a state of extreme chaos and prolonged war.

Based on this understanding, the people of the CPC have come to the conclusion that the greatest suffering of the Chinese people is not ordinary capitalist exploitation, but imperialist oppression and feudal warlord rule.

At the critical moment when the CPC members observed and analyzed the revolutionary situation, the Communist International held the first congress of the Communist Party and national revolutionary organizations in the Far East from January 21 to February 2, 1922. The Chinese delegation, including 14 Communist Party members, participated in this meeting, and some representatives were received and guided by Lenin. The conference exposed the essence of the Washington Conference and its plot to carve up China, and summarized the situation and experience of revolutionary struggles carried out by the people of various countries in the Far East. And based on Lenin's theory of ethnic and colonial issues, this article elucidates the historical task of anti imperialism and anti feudalism faced by oppressed ethnic groups, discusses the position of Communist Party members on ethnic and colonial issues, as well as the issue of cooperation between the Communist Party and national revolutionary political parties, and emphasizes the significant significance of absorbing the participation of farmers in the national democratic revolutionary movement.

After discussion, this conference clearly pointed out that China's "first task at present is to liberate China from the yoke of foreign countries and overthrow the supervisory army", establishing a democratic republic. This has greatly helped the CPC people to further understand the international and domestic situation and complete the historical task of formulating a democratic revolutionary program.

Two (2)

The political program of a political party is a flag that is openly erected.

Based on the judgment of the situation, the CPC people quickly expressed their political views to all sectors of society. On June 15, 1922, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the "CPC's Position on the Situation", which focused on the analysis of the history and current situation of international imperialism and Chinese feudal warlords colluding with each other and oppressing the Chinese people after the Revolution of 1911, and pointed out that imperialist aggression and warlord politics were the root causes of China's internal and external troubles, as well as the root causes of people's suffering. The most urgent task for the proletariat at present is to use revolutionary means to abolish the various privileges of imperialist powers in China; Eliminate warlords, confiscate the property of warlord bureaucrats, and distribute their fields to poor farmers; Safeguarding the freedom and rights of the people. In order to accomplish this task, the CPC advocates establishing a democratic united front with the Kuomintang and other revolutionary parties, as well as other revolutionary organizations, to jointly oppose the dual oppression of imperialist powers and feudal warlords.

This is the first time that the CPC has publicly stated its views on major political issues. Although its strength was still weak at this time, it confidently took transforming China as its responsibility and fought for national independence and people's liberation, leaving a deep impression on all sectors of society.

From July 16th to 23rd, 1922, the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China was held at No. 625 Fudelhi, South Chengdu Road, Shanghai. 12 representatives attended the conference, representing 195 party members from across the country. The conference held three plenary meetings, with Chen Duxiu presiding over the conference and presenting a one-year work report on behalf of the Central Bureau to the conference. The Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China issued a declaration of significant historical significance, which for the first time in modern Chinese history clearly proposed a democratic revolutionary program that thoroughly opposed imperialism and feudalism. "Down with foreign powers, eliminate warlords" immediately became the common voice of the people of all ethnic groups.

The two major declarations of the Communist Party of China deeply analyzed the economic and political situation in China, revealing the history of Chinese society evolving into a semi colonial and semi feudal society, It is pointed out that various facts have proven that the greatest pain inflicted on the Chinese people (whether they are the bourgeoisie, workers, or farmers) is the feudal forces of capitalist imperialism and warlord bureaucrats. Therefore, opposing the democratic revolutionary movement of those two forces is extremely meaningful: that is, due to the success of the democratic revolution, independence and comparative freedom can be obtained

Based on the world revolutionary situation and China's specific national conditions, the manifesto formulated the Party's minimum and maximum programs. The minimum program of the Party, that is, the main program of the Party during the stage of democratic revolution, is to eliminate internal strife, overthrow warlords, and build domestic peace; Overthrow the oppression of international imperialism and achieve complete independence of the Chinese nation; Unify China as a true democratic republic. Then further create conditions to achieve the highest program of the Party: "Establish a political system of labor and peasant dictatorship, eradicate the private property system, and gradually reach a communist society".

From the decision of the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China to directly carry out the socialist revolution, to the decision of the Second National Congress to first carry out the democratic revolution and then carry out the socialist revolution, this is a significant transformation of the Party's strategic policy and an important achievement in the Party's application of the basic principles of Marxism to analyze and solve specific problems in China.

three

Who are our enemies? Who are our friends? This question is the primary issue of the revolution. "This is the first sentence of the opening chapter of" Selected Works of Mao Zedong, "indicating that this question is a major issue related to the success or failure of the revolution. The two major declarations of the Party have provided preliminary answers to this.

——The nature of revolution is democratic revolution;

——The objects of revolution are imperialism and feudal warlords;

——The driving force of revolution is the workers, farmers, and the petty bourgeoisie, and the national bourgeoisie is also one of the forces of revolution;

——The strategy of revolution is to form a united front of various classes;

——The task and goal of revolution is to overthrow warlords, overthrow the oppression of international imperialism, and achieve the independence of the Chinese nation and the reunification of China;

——The future of revolution is to transform into a socialist revolution.

This answers a series of basic questions that have not been clarified for a long time in the Chinese revolution since modern times, and has significant and far-reaching significance. This also fully shows that only the CPC, guided by Marxism and combining it with China's reality, can point out the direction of the revolution for the Chinese people and shoulder the major responsibility of leading the Chinese revolution.

In order to implement the democratic revolutionary program, the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China passed 9 resolutions. Among them, the Resolution on the "Democratic United Front" calls on workers and farmers across the country to unite and fight under the banner of the Communist Party. At the same time, it proposes to unite all revolutionary parties in the country, unite with bourgeois democratic factions, and organize a democratic united front. It also decides to invite revolutionary groups such as the Kuomintang to hold a joint meeting to discuss specific measures. This is the earliest idea and proposition put forward by the Party regarding the united front, which changed the provision in a major document of the Party to establish any relationship with other parties.

After the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Li Dazhao, Chen Duxiu, and other leaders of the Kuomintang, including Sun Yat sen, met to discuss cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. Sun Yat sen decided to implement the alliance with Russia and the Communist Party, and invited Communist Party members to help reorganize the Kuomintang. At the end of August, the Central Executive Committee of the CPC held a plenary meeting in the West Lake, Hangzhou, and decided that under the condition that Sun Yat sen reorganized the Kuomintang and made it a united front organization of the democratic revolution of the bourgeoisie, the petty bourgeoisie and the proletariat, the Communists would join the Kuomintang in their own names. The final formation of the cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party has had a significant impact on promoting the development of the Chinese revolution.

four

To simplify the road, practical work is essential.

The CPC is the product of the combination of Marxism and the Chinese labor movement. Since its establishment, the central and local organizations of the Communist Party of China have been mainly engaged in the workers' movement, and have established the General Office of the Chinese Labor Union Secretariat, which openly engages in the workers' movement.

Under the leadership of the CPC, the consciousness of the Chinese working class has quickly improved. Starting from the Hong Kong seafarers' strike in January 1922, it sparked the first climax of the Chinese workers' movement. Over the course of 13 months, there have been over 100 major and minor strikes across the country, with over 300000 participants. Among them, the Anyuan Road miners' congress strike and the Kailuan coal mine workers' general strike are the most representative, demonstrating the power of the organized working class.

Hong Kong sailors have long suffered from colonial rule by British imperialism and cruel exploitation by capitalists and contractors, leading a very difficult life. In January 1922, under the leadership of advanced elements such as Su Zhaozheng and Lin Weimin, they held a strike to demand an increase in wages. Shortly after the start of the strike, the Guangdong branch of the Communist Party of China issued a leaflet warning the striking sailors, expressing full support for their strike struggle. The Secretariat of the Chinese Labor Union has carried out a large amount of work to support the strike struggle, including donating money to the striking seafarers and promptly mobilizing Shanghai workers to establish the "Hong Kong Seamen Support Association". Hong Kong sailors overcame various difficulties and held on to the strike for 56 days, developing it into a general strike of the Hong Kong Workers' Union, resulting in the complete paralysis of Hong Kong's shipping, disruption of urban transportation, and production stoppage. The Hong Kong and British authorities were forced to lift the order to close the seafarers' union on March 8th, promising to increase the wages of seafarers by 15% to 30% and provide compensation to the families of workers who died in the "Sha Tin Massacre" on March 4th. Later, Deng Zhongxia commented in "A Brief History of the Chinese Workers' Movement (1919-1926)" that "the magnificent British imperialism of the past seventy years has finally surrendered under the power of Chinese sailors." The victory of the Hong Kong seafarers' strike strengthened the working class's courage and trust in struggle, and promoted the development of the national workers' movement.

After the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, strikes and struggles were widespread throughout the country. Among them, the Anyuan Road miners' strike had a significant impact. The Anyuan Road Mine is a combination of the Anyuan Coal Mine in Pingxiang, Jiangxi and the Zhuping Railway from Zhuzhou to Anyuan in Pingxiang, Hunan, with a total of 17000 workers. The Hunan Party organization is very concerned about the suffering of the miners on Anyuan Road. Mao Zedong, the Secretary of the Hunan Branch of the Communist Party of China, visited Anyuan twice in the autumn and winter of 1921 for investigation, and Li Lisan subsequently came here to carry out work. In May 1922, the Anyuan Road and Mining Workers' Club was established, and Li Lisan was elected as the club director. In early September, Mao Zedong came to Anyuan again and deployed the strike work. Subsequently, the party organization sent Liu Shaoqi to Anyuan to strengthen leadership over the strike. After thorough preparation, the workers of Anyuan Road and Mine held a general strike on September 14th, proposing 17 requirements, including protecting workers' rights, increasing wages, improving treatment, paying off unpaid wages, and abolishing the feudal head system. Due to the heroic struggle of workers and the solidarity of various sectors of society, the railway and mining authorities had to send a plenipotentiary representative on September 18th to officially sign a treaty with representatives of the workers' club, which contained 13 clauses and accepted most of the demands put forward by the workers. This strike is the first time that the CPC has independently led and won a complete victory in the labor struggle. It has increased the prestige of the Party organization among the working people and expanded the political influence of the Party and the working class in the country.

Shortly after the Anyuan road and mining workers went on strike, workers from Kailuan Minmetals held an alliance strike. The Kailuan Five Mines included five mining areas, including Tangshan, Zhaogezhuang, Linxi, Majiagou, and Tangjiazhuang. It was the largest and earliest coal mine in China to adopt new technology for mining at that time, with a total of approximately 50000 miners. On October 19, 1922, under the leadership of the Tangshan Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Secretariat of the Chinese Labor Union, the strike leadership organization - the Kailuan Five Mines Alliance Strike Committee was established, and requests were made to the Mining Bureau for increased wages and improved treatment. Due to the refusal attitude of the Kailuan Mining Bureau to refuse, the workers of Minmetals have decided to hold a strike starting from October 23rd. The Secretariat of the Chinese Labor Union mobilized various labor organizations to support the workers' strike struggle in Kailuan Minmetals through publications, donations, and other forms. Under the guidance of the Beijing Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Marxist Theory Research Association of Peking University established the Beijing Kailuan Miner Strike Economic Support Association, issued a declaration, organized personnel to go to the streets to raise funds, and held demonstrations. Trade unions across the country have issued telegrams expressing their support for the strike. The Kailuan Mining Bureau colluded with the warlord government to mobilize more than 3000 military and police personnel to carry out military suppression. On October 26th, a bloody massacre occurred in which 7 people were seriously injured and 57 were lightly injured. After more than 20 days of persistence, considering the prolonged and difficult strike, the workers accepted mediation from relevant parties and reluctantly returned to work after the mining bureau appropriately increased their wages. Although the strike did not achieve its expected goals, it once again demonstrated the strength of the working class. It was another large-scale direct struggle against imperialism after the Hong Kong seafarers' strike, which had a significant impact both domestically and internationally.

While the Party is concentrating its efforts to lead the workers' movement, it is also actively mobilizing and leading the farmers' movement, youth movement, and women's movement.

In terms of the peasant movement, Peng Pai, known as the "King of Agricultural Movement", returned to his hometown Haifeng, Guangdong in June 1922 to promote revolutionary principles to poor farmers and call on them to organize and carry out struggles for their own interests. From the establishment of the first secret farmers' association in Chishan in July, to the end of 1922, 12 or 98 townships in the county had established farmers' associations, with members reaching 20000 households, accounting for a quarter of the total population of the county.

In terms of youth movement, the first National Congress of the Chinese Socialist Youth League was held in Guangzhou in May 1922, discussing and passing six resolutions, including the "Program of the Chinese Socialist Youth League" and the "Constitution of the Chinese Socialist Youth League". This conference declares the official establishment of the Chinese Socialist Youth League, becoming a milestone in the development history of China's youth movement.

In terms of women's movement, the Shanghai Party organization, under the name of the Chinese Women's Federation, established the Shanghai Civilian Girls' School in 1922, mainly recruiting young women who aspire to pursue revolutionary truth and aspire to women's liberation or dropout women from poor families. Civilian girls' schools also organize students to go deep into factories, approach workers, and promote revolutionary principles. Through learning and social practice, the political consciousness, cultural level, and living ability of the students have been comprehensively improved, and many of them have become early women cadres of the Party.

five

Iron must be hard on its own. In order to shoulder the responsibility of leading the Chinese revolution, the CPC attaches great importance to strengthening its own construction in the process of launching and leading the revolutionary struggle.

The Resolution on the Constitution of the Communist Party passed at the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China emphasizes that the CPC is not a "Marxist society organized by intellectuals", not a "utopian revolutionary group in which a few communists leave the masses", but a "party organized by the broad masses of the proletariat with the most revolutionary spirit to fight for the interests of the proletariat and to be the vanguard of the revolutionary movement for the proletariat". In order to build the Party into a revolutionary mass proletarian political party, two important principles must be adhered to: firstly, all Party movements must penetrate into the broad masses; Secondly, there must be a rigorous, highly centralized, and disciplined organization and training within the Party, requiring all Party members to "not only express themselves as communists in their words, but also in their actions" and "sacrifice their personal emotions, opinions, and interests to support the Party's unity". Liu Shaoqi later pointed out in "On the Struggle within the Party" that, It is precisely because "our party has had self criticism and ideological struggle since its initial organization, established democratic centralism, had strict organization and discipline, did not allow the existence of factions, and strongly opposed liberalism, trade union independence, economism, etc. Therefore, it is not yet possible to openly propose a systematic theory of right-wing opportunism within our party." "In this regard, we have taken a straight path.

The Constitution of the CPC, adopted at the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, is the first official party constitution in the history of the party. This party constitution follows the Marxist theory of party building, draws on the basic experience of Russian party building and the practical experience of the CPC after its establishment, and stipulates a series of principles for intra party life and intra party relations. The Party Constitution is divided into 6 chapters and 29 articles, which provide detailed provisions on the conditions for party members, admission procedures, the Party's organizational system, as well as the Party's organizational principles, discipline, and other systems. For example, Article 1 of the Constitution stipulates: "Any party member who recognizes the Party Declaration and Constitution and is willing to faithfully serve the Party shall be a party member without distinction of nationality or gender." Article 4 stipulates: "In rural areas, factories, railways, mines, barracks, schools, and nearby areas, any party member with three to five members may form a group, and each group shall recommend one person as the team leader, under the jurisdiction of local branches If there is no local branch in the location of each group, the district executive committee shall designate the branch to be subordinate to the neighboring branch or the Zhili district executive committee; if there is no district executive committee, it shall be directly under the command and supervision of the central executive committee

Discipline "is the most distinctive part of the two major party constitutions, consisting of nine articles. Among them, Article 17 of the Constitution stipulates: "The National Congress shall be the highest organ of the Party; during the period when the National Congress is not in session, the Central Executive Committee shall be the highest organ." Article 19 stipulates: "The lower level organs shall fully execute the orders of the higher level organs; if they fail to execute, the higher level organs may cancel or reorganize them." Article 25 stipulates: "Any party member who commits one of the following acts must be dismissed from the local executive committee: (1) The speech and actions violate the manifesto and constitution of our party and the resolutions of the executive committees of the congress; (2) Continuation of the meeting for two consecutive times without reason; (3) Three months of unpaid party fees; (4) Not serving the Party for four weeks without reason; (5) Upon the order of the Central Executive Committee, he/she shall cease to attend the Party observation period without changing his/her mind; (6) Leaking secrets of our party The core essence of these disciplinary requirements is to strengthen the Party's discipline and build it into a centralized and unified proletarian political party politically, ideologically, and organizationally.

In the early days of its establishment, an urgent task for party building was to establish and improve the organizational structure of the party, and to develop and strengthen the team of party members. By the end of June 1922, many local organizations had been developed and expanded, including the Shanghai Local Executive Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Beijing Local Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Hunan District Executive Committee of the Communist Party of China, and the Guangdong District Executive Committee of the Communist Party of China. Local branches and other grassroots organizations mainly include Anyuan Coal Mine Branch, Hunan First Normal School Branch, Changxindian Locomotive Factory Branch, Tangshan Manufacturing Factory Branch, Shandong Branch, Zhengzhou Branch, and Lvmoscow Branch.

On the eve of the Second National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the number of party members had grown to 195, and advanced members from a group of workers such as Xiang Ying, Deng Pei, and Zhang Hao had been promoted to party members. At the same time, the Party adheres to strict discipline and severely deals with party members who violate discipline and do not meet standards. Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohai did some work during the process of building the Party and were elected as representatives to attend the First National Congress of the Party. However, they soon seriously violated Party discipline. The party resolutely cleared them out and maintained the purity of the party organization.

Overall, the Party's self construction has made a good start, enabling it to quickly stand out from various political parties and organizations in China as a vanguard of the proletariat and gain the trust of the working class and other working people. This not only laid a solid foundation for future party building, but also provided a fundamental guarantee for launching and leading the Chinese revolution towards victory.